Fashion in 15th-century Europe was characterized by a series of extremes and extravagances, from the voluminous gowns called houppelandes with their sweeping floor-length sleeves to the revealing doublets and hose of Renaissance Italy.
Doublets were stiff, heavy garments, and were often reinforced with boning. During this time the doublet and jerkin became increasingly more colorful and highly decorated. Around , this padding was exaggerated into a peascod belly.
Hose , in variety of styles, were worn with a codpiece early in the period. Trunk hose or round hose were short padded hose. Very short trunk hose were worn over cannions , fitted hose that ended above the knee. Trunk hose could be paned or pansied , with strips of fabric panes over a full inner layer or lining. Slops or galligaskins were loose hose reaching just below the knee. Slops could also be pansied. Pluderhosen were a Northern European form of pansied slops with a very full inner layer pulled out between the panes and hanging below the knee.
Venetians were semi-fitted hose reaching just below the knee. Men wore stockings or netherstocks and flat shoes with rounded toes, with slashes early in the period and ties over the instep later. Boots were worn for riding. Short cloaks or capes , usually hip-length, often with sleeves , or a military jacket like a mandilion , were fashionable. Long cloaks were worn in cold and wet weather. Gowns were increasingly old-fashioned, and were worn by older men for warmth indoors and out. In this period robes began their transition from general garments to traditional clothing of specific occupations, such as scholars see Academic dress.
Hair was generally worn short, brushed back from the forehead. Longer styles were popular in the s. In the s, young men of fashion wore a lovelock , a long section of hair hanging over one shoulder.
Through the s, a soft fabric hat with a gathered crown was worn. These derived from the flat hat of the previous period, and over time the hat was stiffened and the crown became taller and far from flat. Later, a conical felt hat with a rounded crown called a capotain or copotain became fashionable. These became very tall toward the end of century. Hats were decorated with a jewel or feather , and were worn indoors and out. Close-fitting caps covering the ears and tied under the chin called coifs continued to be worn by children and older men under their hats or alone indoors; men's coifs were usually black.
A conical cap of linen with a turned up brim called a nightcap was worn informally indoors; these were often embroidered. Although beards were worn by many men prior to the midth century, it was at this time when grooming and styling facial hair gained social significance.
These styles would change very frequently, from pointed whiskers to round trims, throughout these few decades. The easiest way men were able to maintain the style of their beards was to apply starch onto their groomed faces.
The most popular styles of beards at this time include: A baldrick or "corse" was a belt commonly worn diagonally across the chest or around the waist for holding items such swords, daggers, bugles, and horns.
Gloves were often used as a social mediator to recognize the wealthy. Beginning in the second half of the 16th century, many men had trimmed tips off of the fingers of gloves in order for the admirer to see the jewels that were being hidden by the glove. Late in the period, fashionable young men wore a plain gold ring, a jewelled earring, or a strand of black silk through one pierced ear. Fashionable shoes for men and women were similar, with a flat one-piece sole and rounded toes.
Shoes were fastened with ribbons, laces or simply slipped on. Shoes and boots became narrower, followed the contours of the foot, and covered more of the foot, in some cases up to the ankle, than they had previously. As in the first half of the century, shoes were made from soft leather, velvet, or silk. In Spain, Italy, and Germany the slashing of shoes also persisted into the latter half of the century.
In France however, slashing slowly went out of fashion and coloring the soles of footwear red began. Aside from slashing, shoes in this period could be adorned with all sorts of cord, quilting, and frills.
A variant on the patten popular in Venice was the chopine — a platform-soled mule that raised the wearer sometimes as high as two feet off the ground.
Toddler boys wore gowns or skirts and doublets until they were breeched. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from — in fashion. The Art of Dress: Clothing and Society — , Abrams, The Structures of Everyday Life, p.
Patterns of fashion 4: The cut and construction of linen shirts, smocks, neckwear, headwear and accessories for men and women c. Quite Specific Media Group. A Visual History of Costume: Pub Drama Book Publishers. Daily Life in Ancient Modern London. World History in Context. Retrieved 12 October Textiles and Fashion in Early Modern Europe". Journal of Social History.
Textiles, Technology, and Organisation". In Jenkins , pp. The Visual History of Costume: A survey of historic costume: A history of Western dress , New York: The Art of Dress Clothes and Society National Trust Enterprises Limited.
Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies. Retrieved 23 October Dress and Meaning in Rembrandt's Paintings. Journal of Early Modern Cultural Studies. Wedding clothing Rarely did a peasant couple have a new outfit especially made for a wedding. Usually, wedding clothes were often the very best outfit that a couple owned or was able to make at the time regardless of colour.
Outfits which were made for a wedding would certainly have been worn afterwards. Veils for the bride were often worn- but this was part of her usual clothing and not particular to the wedding itself. Shown at right is detail from the s, The Marriage by Nicolo da Bologna. The bride wears her best dress and is accompanied by musicians and female friends or relatives. The language of love stated that green was the colour of young love and blue was the traditional symbol of purity, making these two colours a popular choice with brides.
Dresses of white, a colour associated with mourning, were almost never worn. Traditionally, a band of blue ribbon would be worn by the bride and groom, giving us the origins of something blue. Garters were worn by every woman as part of her daily clothing to keep her hose fastened securely just under the knee.
These became an important part of a bride's outfit as at the end of the evening when the couple departed for the bedchamber, guests would try to take the garter for good luck.
A man who gave his beloved the garter of a bride was said to have assured her ongoing faithfulness. Wedding jewellery Wedding rings have been worn for hundreds of years, and the medieval period was no different. The plain wedding band can be traced back to the 11th century where it was worn on the third finger of the right hand.
Only in the 16th century, was the ring changed to the left. Wedding rings from within the Jewish community tended to be far more flamboyant than those worn by the rest of the community. Other rings might be plain or be inscribed with mottoes of love and fidelity both on the inside and outside. A marriage brooch was sometimes worn given by the husband to his new bride.
Johannes de Hauville wrote: My bride shall wear a brooch, a witness to her modesty and a proof that hers will be a chaste bed. It will shut up her breast and thrust back any intruder, preventing it's closed approach from gaping open and the enterence to her bosum being cheapened by becoming a beaten path by any traveller, and an adulterous eye from tasting what delights the honourable caresses of a husband.
Pictured at right is a Marriage Brooch dated at around from the Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum. It is made of gold, enamel and precious stones and probably comes from Germany or Burgundy. Betrothal and engagement Medieval betrothal was almost as legally binding as marriage. In the case of nobles, betrothals could be arranged at the age of reason, seven years old, but were not legally binding until the couple came of age.
It was not unusual for the betrothed couple to have not met until their wedding day many years later- the most important goal of marriage between nobles being the acquisition of wealth and to produce suitable legal heirs.
In adult couples, it was not unusual to cohabit prior to the wedding ceremony and offspring conceive and birthed during this period could often be legalised at the wedding ceremony. Hand-fast was a term used for a marriage contract or betrothal contract which denoted commitment but without the religious ceremony.
This was usually a custom in the very early middle ages and between the poor. As the influence of the church grew, it became less frequent. Pictured at left is the Marriage Feast at Canna Legalities of marriage There were certain times of the year when marriages could not be performed; the weeks of Lent and Advent due to those times being religious observances.
For the nobility and the wealthy, grooms were often significantly older than their brides, who could be as young as 13 or Noble women occasionally had the option of not wedding for the first time until the age of 24, but this was a rarity.
Rich orphans, female heiresses and wealthy widows often became wards of the king, and these women or girls could be married to men of the court who wished to increase their wealth and lands.
A lord could sell his ward's marriage to the highest suitable candidate to compensate for his own loss of her income. It was not until the Magna Carta that this practice was somewhat curtailed although by no means desisted completely. High-value broadcloth was a backbone of the English economy and was exported throughout Europe. Silk-weaving was well established around the Mediterranean by the beginning of the 15th century, and figured silks, often silk velvets with silver-gilt wefts , are increasingly seen in Italian dress and in the dress of the wealthy throughout Europe.
Stately floral designs featuring a pomegranate or artichoke motif had reached Europe from China in the 14th century and became a dominant design in the Ottoman silk-producing cities of Istanbul and Bursa , and spread to silk weavers in Florence , Genoa , Venice , Valencia and Seville in this period. Fur was worn, mostly as a lining layer, by those who could afford it. The grey and white squirrel furs of the Middle Ages, vair and miniver , went out of style except at court, first for men and then for women; the new fashionable furs were dark brown sable and marten.
Toward the end of the 15th century, wild animal furs such as lynx became popular. Slashing is a decorative technique that involved making small cuts on the outer fabric of a garment in order to reveal the sometimes brightly colored inner garment or lining. It was performed on all varieties of clothing both men's and women's. In reality, images appear of sleeves with a single slashed opening as early as midth century, although the German fashion for "many small all-over slits" may have begun here.
A second result of the defeat at Grandson was the decline of Burgundy as a fount of culture and fashion. As a result, the French nobility were introduced to the fabrics and styles of Italy, which would combine with German influence to become mainstream fashion of the nobility in France and later spread to England in the first half of the 16th century.
Women's fashions of the 15th century consisted of a long gown, usually with sleeves, worn over a kirtle or undergown, with a linen chemise or smock worn next to the skin. The sleeves were made detachable and were heavily ornamented. The wide, shallow scooped neckline was replaced by a V-neck, often cut low enough to reveal the decorated front of the kirtle beneath.
Various styles of overgowns were worn. The cotehardie fitted smoothly from the shoulders to the hips and then flared by means of inserted triangular gores.
It featured sleeves tight to the elbow with hanging streamers or tippets. The tight fit was achieved with lacing or buttons. This style faded rapidly from fashion in favor of the houppelande, a full robe with a high collar and wide sleeves that had become fashionable around and remained so to midth century.
The bag sleeve was sometimes slashed in the front to allow the lower arm to reach through. Around , the dress of northern Europe developed a low V-neck that showed a glimpse of the square-necked kirtle. The neckline could be filled in with a sheer linen partlet. Wide turn-backs like revers displayed a contrasting lining, frequently of fur or black velvet, and the sleeves might be cuffed to match.
Sleeves were very long, covering half of the hand, and often highly decorated with embroidery. Fine sleeves were often transferred from one dress to another. The term robe déguisée was coined in the mids to describe garments reflecting the very latest fashions, a term which endured into the 16th century. In Italy, the low scoop-neck of the early decades gave way to a neckline that was high in front with a lower V-neck at the back at midth century.
This was followed by a V-neckline that displayed the kirtle or gamurra sometimes spelled camorra. Sleeveless overgowns such as the cioppa were popular, and the gamurra sleeves displayed were often of rich figured silks. A lighter-weight undergown for summer wear was the cotta. A sideless overgown called the giornea was worn with the gamurra or cotta. Toward the end of the period, sleeves were made in sections or panels and slashed, allowing the full chemise sleeves below to be pulled through in puffs along the arm, at the shoulder, and at the elbow.
This was the beginning of the fashion for puffed and slashed sleeves that would last for two centuries. The partlet , a separate item to fill in a low neckline, appeared in this period, usually of sheer fabric linen or possibly silk with an open V-neckline.
Some partlets have a collar and a back similar to the upper part of a shirt. Burgundian partlets are usually depicted worn under the dress but over the kirtle ; in Italy the partlet seems to have been worn over the gown and could be pointed or cut straight across at the lower front.
Two uniquely Spanish fashions appear from the s. The verdugada or verdugado was a gown with a bell-shaped hoop skirt with visible casings stiffened with reeds, which would become the farthingale. The earliest depictions of this garment come from Catalonia , where it is worn with pieced or slashed sleeves and the second new style, a chemise with trumpet sleeves, open and very wide at the wrist. The sideless surcoat of the 14th century became fossilized as a ceremonial costume for royalty, usually with an ermine front panel called a plackard or placket and a mantle draped from the shoulders; it can be seen in variety of royal portraits and as "shorthand" to identify queens in illuminated manuscripts of the period.
A variety of hats and headdresses were worn in Europe in the 15th century. The crespine of Northern Europe, originally a thick hairnet or snood , had evolved into a mesh of jeweler's work that confined the hair on the sides of the head by the end of the 14th century.
Gradually the fullness at the sides of head was pulled up to the temples and became pointed, like horns à corné.
Some 15th century examples dress the bride in a sideless surcoat that was, at that late date, associated with ceremonial costume, primarily for princesses and queens; however, many of the illustrations depicting brides in such a costume seem to illustrate the wedding of a princess, anyway. Towards the end of the 15th century women's head-dresses became smaller, more convenient, and less picturesque. The gable hood, a stiff and elaborate head-dress, emerged around and was popular among elder ladies up until the mid 16th century. You searched for: 15th century gown! Etsy is the home to thousands of handmade, vintage, and one-of-a-kind products and gifts related to your search. No matter what you’re looking for or where you are in the world, our global marketplace of sellers can help you find unique and affordable options. Let’s get started!